SENDMAIL(1)                                                        SENDMAIL(1)

NAME
       sendmail - Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]

       mailq
       sendmail -bp

       newaliases
       sendmail -I

DESCRIPTION
       The  Postfix sendmail(1) command implements the Postfix to
       Sendmail compatibility interface.  For the sake of compat-
       ibility with existing applications, some Sendmail command-
       line options are recognized but silently ignored.

       By default, Postfix sendmail(1) reads a message from stan-
       dard  input until EOF or until it reads a line with only a
       . character, and arranges  for  delivery.   Postfix  send-
       mail(1)  relies  on  the  postdrop(1)  command to create a
       queue file in the maildrop directory.

       Specific command aliases are  provided  for  other  common
       modes of operation:

       mailq  List  the  mail  queue.  Each entry shows the queue
              file ID, message size, arrival  time,  sender,  and
              the recipients that still need to be delivered.  If
              mail could not be delivered upon the last  attempt,
              the  reason  for  failure  is  shown.  The queue ID
              string is followed by an optional status character:

              *      The message is in the active queue, i.e. the
                     message is selected for delivery.

              !      The message is in the hold  queue,  i.e.  no
                     further  delivery attempt will be made until
                     the mail is taken off hold.

              This mode of operation is implemented by  executing
              the postqueue(1) command.

       newaliases
              Initialize the alias database.  If no input file is
              specified (with the -oA  option,  see  below),  the
              program  processes  the  file(s) specified with the
              alias_database  configuration  parameter.   If   no
              alias  database type is specified, the program uses
              the type specified with  the  default_database_type
              configuration parameter.  This mode of operation is
              implemented by running the postalias(1) command.

              Note: it may take a minute or so  before  an  alias
              database  update  becomes visible. Use the "postfix
              reload" command to eliminate this delay.

       These and other features can be selected by specifying the
       appropriate combination of command-line options. Some fea-
       tures are controlled by parameters in the main.cf configu-
       ration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -Am (ignored)

       -Ac (ignored)
              Postfix  sendmail  uses the same configuration file
              regardless of whether or not a message is  an  ini-
              tial submission.

       -B body_type
              The message body MIME type: 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

       -bd    Go  into  daemon  mode.  This  mode of operation is
              implemented by executing the "postfix  start"  com-
              mand.

       -bh (ignored)

       -bH (ignored)
              Postfix has no persistent host status database.

       -bi    Initialize  alias database. See the newaliases com-
              mand above.

       -bl    Go into daemon mode. To accept only  local  connec-
              tions   as  with  Sendmail's  -bl  option,  specify
              "inet_interfaces = loopback" in the Postfix main.cf
              configuration file.

       -bm    Read  mail  from  standard  input  and  arrange for
              delivery.  This is the default mode of operation.

       -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.

       -bs    Stand-alone SMTP server mode.  Read  SMTP  commands
              from  standard  input, and write responses to stan-
              dard output.  In stand-alone SMTP server mode, mail
              relaying  and other access controls are disabled by
              default. To enable them, run  the  process  as  the
              mail_owner user.

              This  mode  of  operation is implemented by running
              the smtpd(8) daemon.

       -bv    Do not collect or deliver a message. Instead,  send
              an  email  report  after  verifying  each recipient
              address.   This  is  useful  for  testing   address
              rewriting and routing configurations.

              This  feature  is  available in Postfix version 2.1
              and later.

       -C config_file

       -C config_dir
              The path name of the Postfix main.cf  file,  or  of
              its  parent  directory. This information is ignored
              with Postfix versions before 2.3.

              With all Postfix versions, you can specify a direc-
              tory  pathname  with  the  MAIL_CONFIG  environment
              variable to override the location of  configuration
              files.

       -F full_name
              Set  the  sender full name. This overrides the NAME
              environment variable, and is used  only  with  mes-
              sages that have no From: message header.

       -f sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is  the
              address where delivery problems are sent  to.  With
              Postfix versions before 2.1, the Errors-To: message
              header overrides the error return address.

       -G     Gateway (relay) submission, as opposed  to  initial
              user  submission.   Either do not rewrite addresses
              at all, or update  incomplete  addresses  with  the
              domain information specified with remote_header_re-
              write_domain.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version  2.3.

       -h hop_count (ignored)
              Hop  count limit. Use the hopcount_limit configura-
              tion parameter instead.

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases  com-
              mand above.

       -i     When  reading  a message from standard input, don't
              treat a line with only a . character as the end  of
              input.

       -L label (ignored)
              The  logging  label. Use the syslog_name configura-
              tion parameter instead.

       -m (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -N dsn (default: 'delay, failure')
              Delivery  status  notification   control.   Specify
              either  a  comma-separated list with one or more of
              failure (send notification  when  delivery  fails),
              delay (send notification when delivery is delayed),
              or success (send notification when the  message  is
              delivered);  or specify never (don't send any noti-
              fications at all).

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -n (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -oAalias_database
              Non-default  alias  database.  Specify  pathname or
              type:pathname. See postalias(1) for details.

       -O option=value (ignored)
              Set the named option to value. Use  the  equivalent
              configuration parameter in main.cf instead.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
              To send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate
              MIME encapsulation and specify the  appropriate  -B
              command-line option.

       -oi    When  reading  a message from standard input, don't
              treat a line with only a . character as the end  of
              input.

       -om (ignored)
              The  sender  is  never  eliminated  from alias etc.
              expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
              Set option x to value. Use the equivalent  configu-
              ration parameter in main.cf instead.

       -r sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is  the
              address where delivery problems are sent  to.  With
              Postfix versions before 2.1, the Errors-To: message
              header overrides the error return address.

       -R return
              Delivery  status  notification  control.    Specify
              "hdrs"  to  return  only  the header when a message
              bounces, "full" to return a full copy (the  default
              behavior).

              The  -R  option  specifies  an upper bound; Postfix
              will return only the header, when a full copy would
              exceed the bounce_size_limit setting.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.10.

       -q     Attempt to deliver all queued mail. This is  imple-
              mented by executing the postqueue(1) command.

              Warning:  flushing  undeliverable  mail  frequently
              will result in poor  delivery  performance  of  all
              other mail.

       -qinterval (ignored)
              The   interval   between   queue   runs.   Use  the
              queue_run_delay configuration parameter instead.

       -qIqueueid
              Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the speci-
              fied  queue ID.  This option is implemented by exe-
              cuting the postqueue(1) command, and  is  available
              with Postfix version 2.4 and later.

       -qRsite
              Schedule  immediate  delivery  of  all mail that is
              queued for the named site. This option accepts only
              site  names  that are eligible for the "fast flush"
              service,  and  is  implemented  by  executing   the
              postqueue(1) command.  See flush(8) for more infor-
              mation about the "fast flush" service.

       -qSsite
              This command is not  implemented.  Use  the  slower
              "sendmail -q" command instead.

       -t     Extract  recipients from message headers. These are
              added to any recipients specified  on  the  command
              line.

              With  Postfix  versions  prior  to 2.1, this option
              requires that no recipient addresses are  specified
              on the command line.

       -U (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       -V envid
              Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers
              that support DSN.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -XV (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -V)
              Variable  Envelope  Return  Path. Given an envelope
              sender address of the  form  owner-listname@origin,
              each  recipient  user@domain  receives  mail with a
              personalized envelope sender address.

              By  default,  the  personalized   envelope   sender
              address  is  owner-listname+user=domain@origin. The
              default + and = characters  are  configurable  with
              the  default_verp_delimiters  configuration parame-
              ter.

       -XVxy (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -Vxy)
              As -XV, but uses x and  y  as  the  VERP  delimiter
              characters,  instead  of  the  characters specified
              with  the   default_verp_delimiters   configuration
              parameter.

       -v     Send  an email report of the first delivery attempt
              (Postfix versions 2.1  and  later).  Mail  delivery
              always  happens in the background. When multiple -v
              options  are  given,  enable  verbose  logging  for
              debugging purposes.

       -X log_file (ignored)
              Log  mailer  traffic.  Use  the debug_peer_list and
              debug_peer_level configuration parameters  instead.

SECURITY
       By  design,  this  program  is not set-user (or group) id.
       However, it must  handle  data  from  untrusted,  possibly
       remote,  users.   Thus,  the  usual precautions need to be
       taken against malicious inputs.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Problems are logged to  syslogd(8)  and  to  the  standard
       error stream.

ENVIRONMENT
       MAIL_CONFIG
              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE (value does not matter)
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG (value does not matter)
              Enable debugging with an external command, as spec-
              ified  with  the   debugger_command   configuration
              parameter.

       NAME   The  sender  full name. This is used only with mes-
              sages that have no From: message header.  See  also
              the -F option above.

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS
       The  following  main.cf parameters are especially relevant
       to this program.  The text below provides only a parameter
       summary.  See postconf(5) for more details including exam-
       ples.

COMPATIBILITY CONTROLS
       Available with Postfix 2.9 and later:

       sendmail_fix_line_endings (always)
              Controls how the Postfix sendmail command  converts
              email  message line endings from <CR><LF> into UNIX
              format (<LF>).

TROUBLE SHOOTING CONTROLS
       The DEBUG_README file gives examples  of  how  to  trouble
       shoot a Postfix system.

       debugger_command (empty)
              The external command to execute when a Postfix dae-
              mon program is invoked with the -D option.

       debug_peer_level (2)
              The increment  in  verbose  logging  level  when  a
              remote  client  or  server matches a pattern in the
              debug_peer_list parameter.

       debug_peer_list (empty)
              Optional list of remote client or  server  hostname
              or  network address patterns that cause the verbose
              logging level to increase by the  amount  specified
              in $debug_peer_level.

ACCESS CONTROLS
       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       authorized_flush_users (static:anyone)
              List  of  users  who  are  authorized  to flush the
              queue.

       authorized_mailq_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to view the queue.

       authorized_submit_users (static:anyone)
              List  of  users  who  are authorized to submit mail
              with the sendmail(1) command (and with  the  privi-
              leged postdrop(1) helper command).

RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS
       bounce_size_limit (50000)
              The maximal amount of original message text that is
              sent in a non-delivery notification.

       fork_attempts (5)
              The maximal number of attempts to  fork()  a  child
              process.

       fork_delay (1s)
              The  delay  between  attempts  to  fork()  a  child
              process.

       hopcount_limit (50)
              The maximal number of  Received:   message  headers
              that is allowed in the primary message headers.

       queue_run_delay (300s)
              The  time between deferred queue scans by the queue
              manager; prior to Postfix 2.4 the default value was
              1000s.

FAST FLUSH CONTROLS
       The ETRN_README file describes configuration and operation
       details for the Postfix "fast flush" service.

       fast_flush_domains ($relay_domains)
              Optional list of destinations that are eligible for
              per-destination  logfiles  with mail that is queued
              to those destinations.

VERP CONTROLS
       The VERP_README file describes configuration and operation
       details  of  Postfix  support for variable envelope return
       path addresses.

       default_verp_delimiters (+=)
              The two default VERP delimiter characters.

       verp_delimiter_filter (-=+)
              The characters Postfix accepts  as  VERP  delimiter
              characters  on the Postfix sendmail(1) command line
              and in SMTP commands.

MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS
       alias_database (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The alias databases for local(8) delivery that  are
              updated with "newaliases" or with "sendmail -bi".

       command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  location  of  all  postfix administrative com-
              mands.

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default location of  the  Postfix  main.cf  and
              master.cf configuration files.

       daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  directory  with  Postfix  support programs and
              daemon programs.

       default_database_type (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default database type for use in newaliases(1),
              postalias(1) and postmap(1) commands.

       delay_warning_time (0h)
              The  time after which the sender receives a copy of
              the message headers of mail that is still queued.

       enable_errors_to (no)
              Report mail delivery errors to the  address  speci-
              fied   with  the  non-standard  Errors-To:  message
              header, instead  of  the  envelope  sender  address
              (this  feature is removed with Postfix version 2.2,
              is turned off by default with Postfix version  2.1,
              and  is  always  turned  on with older Postfix ver-
              sions).

       mail_owner (postfix)
              The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue
              and most Postfix daemon processes.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  location of the Postfix top-level queue direc-
              tory.

       remote_header_rewrite_domain (empty)
              Don't rewrite message headers from  remote  clients
              at all when this parameter is empty; otherwise, re-
              write message  headers  and  append  the  specified
              domain name to incomplete addresses.

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  mail  system  name  that  is  prepended to the
              process name in syslog  records,  so  that  "smtpd"
              becomes, for example, "postfix/smtpd".

FILES
       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files

SEE ALSO
       pickup(8), mail pickup daemon
       qmgr(8), queue manager
       smtpd(8), SMTP server
       flush(8), fast flush service
       postsuper(1), queue maintenance
       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postdrop(1), mail posting utility
       postfix(1), mail system control
       postqueue(1), mail queue control
       syslogd(8), system logging

README_FILES
       DEBUG_README, Postfix debugging howto
       ETRN_README, Postfix ETRN howto
       VERP_README, Postfix VERP howto

LICENSE
       The Secure Mailer license must be  distributed  with  this
       software.

AUTHOR(S)
       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

                                                                   SENDMAIL(1)